What are the Components of a Photovoltaic System?
4 Basic components of a photovoltaic system are introduced in this article:
PV panels or Photovoltaic panels are one of the components of a Photovoltaic System, which are mainly composed of three layers:
– Top layer (N) composed of silicon phosphor
– The middle layer (P/N) consists of silicon
– The bottom layer (P) consists of silicon and boron
When the sun shines on the N layer, the electron particles move and affect the P layer through the middle layer, which is a one-way connection, and this action creates an electric field.
Read more about the types of solar panels and the Applications of solar panels
Another component of a Photovoltaic System is the inverter. The inverter must be connected to the solar panel by a wire, and the purpose of placing the inverter between the solar panel and the consumer is that this device converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). It is necessary to have an inverter for home panels.
Because the electricity produced by the panels is direct current (DC) which is similar to the electricity stored in batteries, but most household appliances work with alternating current (AC).
One of the key components of a Photovoltaic System (especially the off-grid type) is the Charge Controller. This device, when the required charge of the Solar Battery is completed, by automatically disconnecting the battery from the charging circuit, protects it from Over Charging and hence will play an important role in increasing the lifespan of the Solar Battery.
Briefly, it should be mentioned that in all electrical circuits that use batteries, the phenomenon of Overcharging causes serious damage to the internal structure of batteries. in such a way that it greatly reduces the amount of storage capacity and the life of the battery. Therefore, in a more comprehensive definition, it can be said that the charge controller is generally a device for adjusting the voltage or output current from solar panels, to protect solar batteries from overcharging.
As an example, it can be mentioned that in the old Sealed Type batteries, it was no longer possible to repair the battery when it was overcharged; Because the water inside these batteries was irreplaceable due to their closed structure.
In On Grid systems, during the battery charging process, when the battery is fully charged, with the help of the Auto Switching process in the Charge Controller, the excess electricity generated is first directed to the Counter and then to the electricity distribution network to avoid energy wastage and make profit by selling excess electricity to the electricity department.
Among the duties of the charge controller, we can refer to the charge regulator, charge control or battery regulator, controlling the charge flow and discharging batteries. The charge controller also prevents the complete discharge of the battery and limits the battery discharge speed according to the type of battery and in order to protect it. It is necessary to explain that rapid discharge of the battery reduces its life. The charging of the controller is both independent and integrated inside the Battery Charger. An independent charge controller is a separate device alongside solar and wind power equipment.
Many house owners use batteries as one of the components of a Photovoltaic System in order to have a back-up electricity for themselves and give the rest of the produced electricity to the municipal power grid, and the rest of those who use batteries because they They are not connected to the electricity grid, they store electricity for times when they cannot use solar energy to use in these times.
Where the batteries are placed in the solar system circuit depends on the type of battery and the application you want. Some batteries are placed before the inverter and are stored by DC current, but others are placed after the inverter and use AC current to store electricity. Batteries are a popular component among other components of solar systems, but they are not necessary for this system. If you design and install a solar system connected to the power grid, you will rarely suffer from power outages, although in special situations such as when you do not have access to the power grid, batteries are very efficient.
Regarding the installation of the battery, it is better to consider the performance that is important to you, then consult with the company providing the solar panel systems to design a suitable system for your conditions.
Palmore international as a well known photovoltaic panel supplier and manufacturer in Oman has reviewed 4 Basic components of a photovoltaic system in this article.
If you consider buying and installing photovoltaic panels with the best price in Oman or you’re willing to get more info on it, feel free to contact Palmore International solar experts for free consultation.