Introduction to Cold Storage Equipment
Palmore International, as one of the largest manufacturers and suppliers of cold storage and cold storage equipment in Oman, introduces various types of cold storage equipment to you in this article.
Cold storage equipment can be classified into 4 main groups:
1- Refrigeration equipment of the cold storage
2- Cold storage electrical equipment
3- Cold storage room equipment
4- Installation equipment of the cold storage
1- Refrigeration equipment
This group of cold storage equipment has a lot of variety. The refrigeration equipment of the cold room has four main parts and a large number of other parts.
The four main parts of the refrigeration group of cold storage equipment are:
Cold room compressor (engine).
Cold storage condenser
Cold room expansion valve
Cold room evaporator.
1-1-Refrigeration compressor (engine): the heart of the cold storage equipment
The cold room compressor or the cold room engine is the most important part of the cold room equipment and acts as the heart of the cold room. The refrigerator compressor pumps the cold gas returned from the evaporator to the condenser after increasing the pressure and temperature.
1-2- Cold room condenser: heat exchanger of cold room equipment
The cold room condenser is one of the most important equipments of the cold room and any other refrigeration circuit. In the cold room condenser, the hot refrigerant gas turns into a liquid refrigerant with a much lower temperature (closer to the ambient temperature) and is ready to be injected into the cold room evaporator through the expansion valve. For this reason, the condenser is an inseparable part of the cold storage equipment.
1-3- Expansion valve: pressure breaker for cold storage equipment
The refrigerator expansion valve is a small but vital part of the refrigerator parts. The high-pressure refrigerant produced by the refrigerator condenser must pass through the refrigerator expansion valve in order to cool down and absorb heat, so that at the same time as the pressure drops significantly, its temperature will be the same. ratio should drop. Therefore, even with the presence of other cold storage equipment, if the expansion valve does not work properly, there will not be proper cooling in the cold storage.
1-4- Evaporator: heat exchanger of cold storage equipment
The last main part of refrigeration equipment in cold storage equipment is called the evaporator. The evaporator in cold storage equipment is a heat exchanger that transfers the heat in the cold storage environment to the refrigerant gas coming out of the expansion valve.
In fact, it is in the evaporator that the cold of the cooling circuit of the cold room is tangible for us, and the heat in the environment and the goods inside the cold room is taken.
1-5- Cold room separator oil
Along with the gas coming out of the compressor, some of the compressor oil is also coming out. Among the refrigerator appliances, this oil separator is responsible for separating the oil from the gas and returning it to the compressor.
1-6- Accumulator (liquid breaker) of the cold store
Accumulator is a piece of cold storage equipment that prevents refrigerant gas from entering the compressor in liquid form to a large extent. Considering that the refrigerant gas is incompressible in the liquid phase, if it enters the compressor, it can cause damage to the mechanical components of the compressor and then to its electric motor during the compression stroke of the compressor.
1-7- The liquid tank (receiver) of the cold room
Considering that at different pressures and temperatures, the required amount of refrigerant gas in circulation changes at that moment in the refrigeration circuit of the cold room, it is necessary to consider a part in the cold room parts that can be used as a tank that can be used in When changing the required amount of refrigerant, it can store the refrigerant or inject it into the system. This part of cold storage equipment is called liquid tank or receiver.
This part of the cold storage equipment is a tank that can store the refrigerant or inject it into the system when the required amount of refrigerant changes. This tank is called a receiver.
1-8- Cold store compressor shock absorbers
Compressor shock absorbers among the cold storage parts are responsible for absorbing compressor vibrations.
The vibrations of the compressor are entered into two parts of the refrigeration circuit of the cold store. One is through the compressor bases to the chassis and other control parts, and the other is through the pipes connected to the compressor which enters the piping system.
1-9- Cold storage controllers
The refrigeration circuit of the cold room must be controlled in terms of different working pressures and temperatures. Therefore, electrical and mechanical controllers should be used in the cold room equipment for this purpose.
Normal temperature controllers are called thermostats and mechanical pressure controllers are called pressure switches. Sometimes it is necessary to use other components in cold storage equipment such as PLC, thermocouple, pressure gauges and pressure transmitters to control the temperature and working pressure of the cold storage.
1-10- Cold room faucets
In the refrigeration circuit of the cold store, it is necessary to control and manage the pressure, direction, opening and closing as well as the amount of gas and oil flow at different points.
For this purpose, a variety of valves are used among the cold storage parts. The most important of them are rotolock valve, ball valve, electric valve, manual valve, pressure controller valves and one-way valves.
1-11- Cold store filters and strainers
Filters and strainers are widely used in cold storages. This part of cold storage equipment can separate the harmful and extra components that exist in the refrigeration system of the cold storage, in order to increase the efficiency of the system and prevent damage to the equipment.
Filters and strainers are installed in different parts of the cold storage circuit. The most commonly used filters and strainers in cold storage are: filter dryer, suction filter, oil strainer, compressor crankcase filter, compressor inlet strainer, and anti-acid filters.
Find out about using a humidifier in cold storage
2- Electrical equipment
The most important electrical component among the cold storage parts is called the cold storage switchboard. The cold storage switchboard, while providing electrical energy with the appropriate voltage and quality for other cold storage equipment, acts as the brain for the refrigeration circuit of the cold storage. Usually, each cold storage switchboard has two circuits with different properties. the control circuit of the electrical panel and the power circuit of the electrical panel. The control circuit of the electrical panel is actually a circuit of wiring or controllers that determines the functional logic of the cold storage at any moment and the power circuit of the panel
2-2- Electric controllers of cold storage
Electric controllers are an important part of cold storage equipment. The most important electric controllers in cold storage are electric thermostat, PLC, relays, contactors, timer, phase control and over current controllers.
2-3- Cold room fans
A significant number of fans are used in cold storage parts. The most common uses of fans are in evaporators, condensers, compressor cylinder head cooling, compressor oil cooling, and cold air exchange between two cold storage rooms. Therefore, fans are one of the most used cold storage equipments. .
2-4- Cold room lighting
Among the cold storage equipment, the lighting system is a simple but important part. The cold storage lighting system can include protection switches, disconnecting and connecting, optical sensors, cabling, micro switches and all kinds of lamps.
3- Room equipment
The main part in the room equipment is the sandwich panel. The sandwich panel is used to form the walls, ceiling and sometimes the floor of the cold storage. As an important part of the Cold storage room equipment, the sandwich panel has the main task of preventing heat transfer between the inside and outside of the cold storage.
Read more about Application of sandwich panels
Insulation equipments are another part of cold storage equipment. If a cover without insulating properties is used in a part of the cold storage, it is necessary to use insulating materials in that part.
For example, if a cement and stone coating is used on the floor of the cold store, it is necessary to use a layer of suitable insulation under them, for example, high-density Unolite.
Also, in many cases, it is necessary to use special insulation adhesives as one of the accessories of the cold room in order to create proper insulation of the cold room in the line of cracks.
3-3-Profiles of the body (room) of the cold room
Another important component of the room equipment includes profiles that form a unified and resistant room for cold storage by folding sandwich panels together.
This category of cold storage equipment includes various corners and studs with various products.
3-4-Cold room door
The cold room door is one of the most important pieces of equipment in the cold room. The cold room door, which is included in the body category of cold room equipment, should be designed, selected and implemented in such a way that it allows the movement of people and necessary machines to the cold room environment. In addition, it should be able to create proper insulation when it is closed to prevent the waste of cold inside the cold store.
Read more about cold room doors
3-5-rails, bolts, rivets
Also, a significant number of types of rails, bolts and rivets are used to connect cold storage equipment to each other or to connect them to building components.