Types of cold storage
Different types of cold storage are made with different features based on the type of need and the type of product that is supposed to be stored in it.
A cold room is a confined space where its temperature and humidity are carefully and continuously controlled. Cold storage or cold room are usually used to freeze and store various products such as food products, meat, chicken and fish, dairy products, fruits and vegetables, as well as electronic, medical, chemical and pharmaceutical equipment and products.
In the construction of different types of cold storage and to prevent energy wastage, all sides of the cold storage room, including its walls, ceiling, and floor, must be insulated.
The type and thickness of the insulation layer has a very important effect on preventing energy loss and increasing the life of the refrigeration system, and thus preventing corruption and deterioration of stored products.
Depending on the dimensions of the cold storage and its load, as well as the type and duration of product storage, the refrigeration capacity of the cold storage and, accordingly, the power of the compressor, condenser, and evaporator changes in all types of cold storage.
Cold stores work based on the condensation refrigeration cycle, and depending on the required refrigeration capacity, they can be Freon, rack or ammonia type.
Some types of cold storage work at temperatures above zero. This type of cold storage is usually used for storing fruits and vegetables or for short-term storage and distribution of meat, chicken and fish.
Types of cold storage for meat industries
Cold storages for the meat industry are usually built next to slaughterhouses, and their capacity is based on 80% slaughter per working cycle. The capacity of frozen meat storage rooms is equivalent to 60 cycles of slaughter and cold meat storage rooms are equivalent to two days of slaughter.
Usually, the slaughter of each slaughterhouse is about 30 to 50 tons in each cycle, in this case, the capacity of the cold store is 2000 to 3000 tons. It is suggested to build a one-story morgue in case of 30 tons, and to build a multi-story morgue for 50 tons slaughter.
In case of regional need, the slaughter capacity can be taken less than 30 tons. To keep fresh meat, the hall must be equipped with a conveyor rail with a rake.
Types of cold storage for dairy industries
These cold stores are usually built next to milk factories. Milk is usually brought in at a temperature of 20°C and cooled down to 2°C.
In the types of dairy cold stores, if glass containers are used, the maximum height of the rack is 1.5 meters, and if the milk, cream, and cheese are packed in bags or nylon containers, in traditional arrangement (use of pallets), the height of the rack is up to 2 meters, and in If box pallet is used, two rows or maximum three rows are considered.
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Types of cold storage for fruits and vegetables
In addition to general cold stores, usually in the areas of fruit production or fruit consumption, a special cold store for fruits and vegetables is built. In the types of such cold stores, it is usually referred to as a cold room.
Fruit with a temperature lower than 15°C is directly entered into the storage room, and the maximum daily entry of fruit into the hall is 8% of the room’s capacity. In case of exporting frozen fruit and storing it for a long time, a special freezing room should also be considered.
The number of rooms and their capacity depends on the type of fruit. Under no circumstances should fruits and vegetables be stored in the same room, and aromatic fruits such as oranges, lemons, and melons should not be stored in the same place with other fruits. A special room should be considered for a fruit like grapes that needs sulfur.
In a cold store with a capacity of more than 5000 tons, it is suggested that the capacity of each room be between 200 and 250 tons, and in small cold stores, a capacity of 50 tons and in medium cold stores, the capacity of each room should be between 100 and 150 tons. Apart from the storage room and pre-cooler, usually a room for grading (sorting) fruit and a warm room for fruit ripening should be considered.
One of the problems of special fruit cold storages is the lack of sorting and disinfection before packing, which causes bruised fruits to start rotting during picking due to the high humidity in the storage halls, and healthy fruits also rot.
Due to this, as well as the lack of precision in keeping the temperature and humidity constant, most of the time up to half of the fruits cannot be used and the energy used for storage is wasted.
In some types of cold stores that are built next to fruit orchards, ponds are considered for cooling and disinfection, and the fruits are packed after sorting and enter the storage halls through pre-cooling. In these cold storages, spoilage is minimized.
Types of cold storage for fish (fisheries)
The capacity of the halls of this type of cold storage depends on the processing time, loading and unloading time. The duration of cooling the fish depends on the type of cooling and room temperature, and the shape and size of the fish. If cooling the fish with ice, you must consider the ice maker and the ice storage room for 4 to 6 days. The amount of ice that is poured into the fish boxes is at least 50% of the weight of the fish, and this process is done in a special room whose capacity is equal to 10% of the cold storage capacity.
The power of fish freezing devices depends on the type of cold storage, and for a cold storage that receives fresh fish directly, 10% of the cold storage capacity is considered, and for cold storage in the port receiving fish, up to 5% of the cold storage capacity (frozen fish storage room) is considered.